Wool Fiber | Properties of Wool Fiber | Classification of Wool

Wool Fiber | Properties of Wool Fiber | Classification of Wool

Wool Fiber | Properties of Wool Fiber | Classification of Wool


In this article, garments merchandising will provide you information about Wool Fiber | Properties of Wool Fiber | Classification of Wool. Wool has some unique properties that make it one in every of nature’s most amazing fibers. Firstly, wool is immune to fire. It’ll burn if it’s held to an intense fire, but when it’s faraway from the flame, it’ll self-extinguish. The rationale is that every and each wool fiber comprises moisture. It is also an incredibly flexible and sturdy fiber; one fiber is bent back quite 20,000 times without breaking and is claimed to be relatively stronger than steel .To put this in standpoint, a cotton fiber can only be bent 3,000 times before it breaks. Its natural bounciness makes it immune to tearing furthermore. Wool fibers is overextended the maximum amount as 50 percent of their original length when it’s wet and about 30 percent when dry


Wool is additionally a reasonably smart insulator. Consider it sort of a thermos for your body — it can keep you warm or cool reckoning on your needs. It keeps you warm without overheating your body and within the Sahara, Bedouins wear out wool to stay them cool within the searing heat. The key to both of those facts are the little pockets of air within each wool fiber that provide both insulation and breathability. If that’s not enough, it is also immune to mold and mildew. It’s no wonder humans tame the sheep in 8000 B.C.


Wool is additionally able to absorb the maximum amount as 30 percent of its own weight in moisture without feeling wet, which is one in every of the explanations it can still keep you warm even within the. The fibers have a natural crimp that helps to wick moisture faraway from the body. Getting this moisture off your bare skin may be a key element to keeping warm in wet conditions. But there are other more complex elements to the wool fiber that aid in warming you within the wetness, as well. We’ll take a glance at those on the subsequent page.


Properties of wool fiber are described below:

Length and fineness:

Wool fiber are very ( 17-25µm) but not very loving (60-100mm). Wool fibers are roughly elliptical in cross section.


Crimp fibers are exceptional among fiber in having away structure which has great importance particularly use. It enables the fiber to carry together when twisted into a yarn. thanks to its crimp wool yarns trap air and when employed in garments providing an insulating barrier to loss of body heat that way wool fabric felt warm.


Wool fiber have natural luster which depends very mostly on the character of fiber surface.


Wool incorporates a tenacity of 8.8-15CN/Tex in dry state and 7-14CN/Tex in wet state.


Wool incorporates a elongation at break of 25-35% under standard condition and 25-50% when wet.

Elastic property:

Wool fibers are highly elastic. Wool fiber therefore doesn’t crease easily and have good crease reclamation. The elastic recovery of wool fiber is 65% for 20% extension and almost 100% for brief extension.

Effect of moisture and water:

Wool fibers are hygroscopic and therefore the most hydrophilic of textile fiber. Under normal atmospheric conditions wool will hold 16-18% of its weight of moisture.


Classification of Wool

Wool can been classified into following

  • Lamb’s wool
  • Merino Wool
  • Shetland wool
  • Mohair
  • Cashmere
  • Angora
  • Camel hair
  • Qiviut
  • Alpaca
  • Vicuña

Lamb’s wool

Lamb’s wool comes from the primary shearing of a young sheep (lamb) which is shorn around seven months. It’s sometimes noted as wool, though that term also refers to wool that hasn’t yet been processed. The shearing of the lamb at this stage yields extremely smooth, soft and fine wool which also has hypoallergenic properties.

Wool Fiber | Properties of Wool Fiber | Classification of Wool
lamb wool


Merino Wool

Merino wool comes from the merino breed of sheep which have their roots in Spain, though much of today’s merino wool is exported from Australia. The Merino wool is understood for its fine fibers which supply a extremely soft hand and make it an excellent material for approaches like base layers that have direct contact with the wearer’s skin.

This type of  wool also incorporates a lower yield equated to other wools due to the scouring process which is required so as to get rid of the fatty greases characteristic to the fabric. Scouring washes the wool in chemicals to get rid of the natural fat layer, but the method yields only about 1/2 the initial wool. This arduous process makes merino wool pricier than other wools.

marino wool


Shetland wool

Shetland sheep, from the Zetland of Scotland, produce this kind of wool. It’s thicker and coarser than other wools like merino — a right away results of the cold weather of the region.

Wool Fiber | Properties of Wool Fiber | Classification of Wool
Shetland wool



Mohair comes from the domestic goat and is distinct from other wools for numerous reasons. The guard hairs from the topcoat of the goat are often involved with the undercoat within the shearing process. Though the fibers are thicker, the mild climate during which Angora goats are grown means it’s not as coarse as other wools — its longer length gives the fiber its smoothness and ends up in a uniquely fuzzy fabric.




Cashmere is shorn from the undercoat of cashmere (Kashmir) goats once they enter the molting season. Because cashmere is shorn from the undercoat, the yield per goat is tiny, needful two cashmere goats to supply one sweater. The wool produced by these special goats ends up in a very fine fiber with about the identical thickness of ultrafine merino and a substantial jump in price.

Wool Fiber | Properties of Wool Fiber | Classification of Wool
Cashmere wool


Not to be tangled with the domestic goat from which mohair wool is created, Angora wool comes from Angora rabbits and is that the lightest, finest and warmest of the natural fibers. Angora fibers, like alpaca, are hollow and smooth giving it unrivaled warmness and loft. The fibers are extremely soft, but also very subtle. For this reason, angora is usually mixed with other fibers to extend its toughness.
The extreme fineness of angora makes it vulnerable to matting and felting — one more reason why it’s mixed with other fibers — but also requires angora breeders to comb the rabbits a day. This concentrated process and low yield add up to a heavy price.





Camel Hair

Most camel hair comes from Bactrian camels, which are reared in frigid regions like Mongolia, China and Russia, and is together when the camel molts in spring. Camel hair is hollow like mohair and is finer and longer than sheep’s wool. The result’s a fiber that’s lighter and more lustrous than sheep’s wool and around as soft as cashmere. Though camel hair takes dye well, it’s often kept in its usual color, a light, golden brown, and is employed synonymously to seek advice from the colour itself.

Wool Fiber | Properties of Wool Fiber | Classification of Wool
Camel Hair


Qiviut is wool that comes from the undercoat of the arctic muskox, which is reared in Canada and Alaska. During the muskox’s molting season, the undercoat is hut and breeders either gather the wool through combing or plucking the wool from the bottom. Qiviut is finer than delicate sheep’s wool, is softer, stronger and almost eight times stove. It also doesn’t shrink in water.

Wool Fiber | Properties of Wool Fiber | Classification of Wool


Alpacas are inborn to South America and produce hairs that are hollow. This exceptional property not only makes alpaca frivolous but also adds greater insulation. It’s both lighter and warmer than sheep’s wool. Associated to cashmere, alpaca is likewise soft, but notably stronger. Alpaca hair is of course hypoallergenic in addition, making it ideal for those with sensitive skin.



The rarest wool comes from the vicuña, an animal associated with the alpaca and llama, originating within the Andes. The vicuña was holy to the customary Incas, who prized the wool for its softness and heat and earmarked it for royalty. The wool is finer than cashmere and penetratingly warm. Because it’s sensitive to chemicals, it’s often left in an very state, without concerning dyes.

The Peruvian government goes to great lengths to reservation the vicuña population ever since their numbers dropped to only 5,000 in 1960. Thanks to this, the reaping and exportation of vicuña wool is heavily controlled. Vicuñas must be caught within the wild and may only be shorn every two years and no quite five times in their lifetime. The long and strict production process makes it the foremost luxurious and fewest wool within the world, costing up to $3,000 per yard.

Wool Fiber | Properties of Wool Fiber | Classification of Wool




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