Acrylic Fiber | Production Process of Acrylic Fiber | Characteristics and uses of Acrylic Fiber
Acrylic Fiber | Production Process of Acrylic Fiber | Characteristics and uses of Acrylic Fiber: Synthetic textile fiber made up of 85% acrylonitrile, monomers derived from acrylic acid. It is available in staple, tow, spinning top. It is produced in numerous special types with innovative features. Like thinner microfibers than cashmere, for a soft and warm knitwear. It is “flame retardant” flakes, intended for technical uses in the field of safety. Fibers that are already dyed by the manufacturer, to save on the dyeing processes, while ensuring greater respect for the environment and solidity proofing the most severe “outdoor” uses, etc. It can be used in pure or with natural or “man made” fibers. Among the most popular brand names: the ‘ → Orlon , the → Dralon ,Leacril.
Production Process of Acrylic Fiber
The production process involves a polymerization phase, followed by chemical spinning. Which gives the particular nature of acrylonitrile, cannot be carried out by fusion but only by solution. The spinning can take place dry, as in the first production of DuPont and Bayer, or wet, . Which over time has established itself as the most widespread, representing today about 85% of the installed capacity in the world .
Spinning is followed by a series of treatments whose purpose is to impart the necessary physical-mechanical characteristics to the fiber. Such as toughness, modulus, fixing (in the case of stabilized fiber), retract ability (in the case of high-bulk fiber), cretto , hand. The properties are designed according to the transformation technology. And the end uses for which the fiber is intended. The dyeing, which can advantageously be carried out directly in the production phase. It has taken on considerable importance in the chemical spinning process of the acrylic fiber.
Two technologies can be used in spinning,
- Inserting dyes or pigments in the polymer solution, before feeding it to the dies;
- Adding special dyes before drying, when the fiber is still in the gel state. So that the penetration of the color is possible effectively.
The “producer dyed” acrylic fiber has established itself for a series of not indifferent advantages. Such as the excellent reproducibility of the colors between the different dye baths. The very high solidity and durability of the colors, the absolute constancy of characteristics, the advantages of cost in relation to yarn dyeing. There is no doubt, however, that “normal” dyeing (the one performed on the raw material instead of staple, top, yarn, fabric, knit) is the most widely used procedure on the market, and this for various reasons.
Meanwhile, the ease of dyeing the acrylic fiber with cationic dyes leads to excellent results in terms of solidity, intensity and liveliness of the colors. The dyeing process has also long since become rapid and safe, with an excellent degree of exhaustion and ease of reproduction, as well as a medium congruous “quick-response”. No problem even in the wide range of applications in blends with different fibers (natural or chemical).And this also as regards the processing phases along the textile supply chain, especially in spinning and weaving.
Characteristics of Acrylic Fiber:
- Products with particularly woolly and warm hand are produced.
- It has excellent resistance to sunlight and atmospheric agents.
- It Has resistant to mold, microorganisms, moths, insects of any kind.
- This fiber has excellent comfort, insulation, breathability; ease of washing, without felting, with rapid drying.
- It is non-shrinkable and has good resistance to creasing.
Uses of acrylic fiber:
- Fabrics for light and heavy drapery and woolen clothing, external knitwear like hosiery, etc
- Normally mixed, and the most used is with wool in the 55/45 ratio. So-called “ecological” furs for interiors or exteriors, using pure or mixed 100% acrylic fiber in the strengths 3.3 – 5.6 – 8.9 dtex.
- Carpets, for resilience and ease of maintenance; fabrics and velvets for furnishings (bright appearance, long life, resistance to dirt, easy cleaning). Where the effect is made with woolen or cotton yarns produced with 100% glossy acrylic fiber in the 3,3 – 5,6 dtex counts; outdoor blinds (excellent resistance to sunlight, mold and atmospheric agents); wadding for the padding of sofas, armchairs, etc.
- For underwear it is not recommended because it can present drawbacks due to rubbing electrification.
- Combined with wool, it avoids felting of the fabric.
- Polyester padding is preferred for sportswear.
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