Introduction of Flax and Hemp|Difference between Flax and Hemp Fibers

Introduction of Flax and Hemp|Difference between Flax and Hemp Fibers

In this article, garment merchandising will discuss, Introduction of Flax and Hemp|Difference between Flax and Hemp Fibers. Flax (in fiber form) is sort of indistinguishable from hemp, which threatens possible misconception with the latter, which is considerably different in price. Flax and hemp are cellulose fibers that we produce from pillories of raw material.


Their properties are similar which they’re barely distinguished at the fib improvement. Analytical  difference is complicated by strong interventions into these fibers during the textile treatment, which is comparable in both flax and hemp: the fibers are separated, blanched, and undesirable additions are removed. These operations are connected with the change of average chemical composition of fiber material, e.g. the concentration of lignin reductions, the portion of low molecular celluloses reductions and thus the macro molecules of cellulose are shortened. There’s also an oversized variance in fiber features at wide intervals, e.g. the actual strength of fibers andthus the length of.

Comparison of the properties of flax and hemp


Introduction of Flax and Hemp | Difference between Flax and Hemp Fibers

Introduction of Flax and Hemp | Difference between Flax and Hemp Fibers


The results of some analytical methods of distinguishing flax and hemp depend upon the number of basic fibers within the bundle. For this reason it’s possible to recommend clearing the basic fibers from the bundles before applying the opposite distinguishing methods (especially microscopic differentiation) within the analytical literature[8]the following process is suggested: boiling the fiber sample for 30 min during a tenth hydrogen carbonate solution (or 2% hydrated oxide solution) removes the pectin substances. The fundamental fibers can then be free by friction between the fingers.

Difference between Flax and Hemp Fibers

Microscopic differentiation

The morphological characteristics stated in Table 1 will be used for microscopic difference of flax and hemp. The observation is usually concerned with towards the observation of the shapes of the fiber’s cross-sections and fiber ends at the longitudinal view.

This method is time-consuming (requiring preparations to be prepared), the appreciation of the characteristics experiential is very subjective, and it also requires considerable experience. A bonus is that the incontrovertible fact that the form of the basic fibers doesn’t change during the processing.

Swelling test

Numerous morphological constructions of flax and hemp are showed by the varied extents of the swelling property of the fibers. Within the coax solution. The flax swells consistently and comparatively quickly, the tube within the non-blanched fiber contracts in an exceedingly winding fashion, and it resists the solvent.

The hemp swells slowly; during this process the tube within the raw fiber often gets a typical periodic shape. The swelling of the flax and therefore the hemp has been photographically recognized by Koch [8] and Felix [9]. For observing fibers it’s essential to use

the microscopic method.

Dyeing tests

Hemp comprises more lignin and non-cellulose portions than flax. On this basis, a bunch of tests has been organized within which the dyestuff of the agent is e.g. sobbed only by the lignin part of the fiber, as an example, or when the agent reacts with the non-cellulose parts of the fiber reckoning on the colour compound practical.

Dyeing tests are particularly appropriate to raw fibers before removing no cellulose substances from fibers (preliminary finish or otherwise); after their removal, the fibers won’t colour. The methods is very easy to  performe and their results are apparent by visual evaluation even without microscopic apparatus.

Behavior of flax and hemp dependent on the dyeing


Introduction of Flax and Hemp | Difference between Flax and Hemp Fibers

Introduction of Flax and Hemp | Difference between Flax and Hemp Fibers


 Cyanin reaction:


• ƒ 70 ml of Chinolin Blue solution (when cold, it is a saturated solution) + 5 ml water + 25 ml of
Clear glycerin

  • When warm, the flax is un coloured but the hemp gets a blue-green colouring.

    Fluoroglucine reaction: [9]

    1.   Dissolve the fluoroglucine in 96% alcohol to coffee-brown colour;                                                                          2.  minutes’ effect on the sample at a non-increasing temperature;
    3. Suck off the excess of agent;                                                                                                                                                4. Dissolve crystallized fluoroglucine in added alcohol;
    5.  Add concentrated hydrochloric acid;
    6. The reaction will run over 3 – 5 min. Alternative process of the fluoroglucine reaction: [10]
    7. Dissolve 2g of the fluoroglucine in 100ml of alcohol;
    8.  Directly before using, add 10 ml of acid . p-nitranilin reaction:
    9.  2 g of the p-nitranilin is dissolved in 80ml of water, 20ml of concentrated acid is

Summary of ordinary methods

Standard methods (microscopic, swelling and dyeing) of unique of the flax and hemp aren’t very dependable for routine difference of flax and hemp, and are rather subjective because they’re supported observing the physiognomies which vary only barely between flax and hemp. The characteristics observed can acquire the indistinguishable values for flax and hemp, reckoning on the degree of processing of the fibers tested.

Twist tests – Indirect method of determination of fibril slope within the flax and also the hemp

Flax and hemp have different orientations of fibril bundles within the fiber. Indirectly,you can test this fact through opposing behavior of flax and hemp in polarized light (as directed from above), and by the prospect of unique the fibers by deflection. From the analytical aspect, the orientation of the fibrils at the hydration and dehydration of llamas is significant. During these processes, changes to the geometry features of the fibril bundles occur.

These changes are macroscopically expressed by the fiber’s effort to indicate, then remove the inner stress at the sorption (or desorption) of water. Sonntag [16] used this method for the analytical difference of flax and hemp. The so-called Twist test’ method for distinguishing flax and hemp is founded on this basis, the merit of which is that the observation of the spontaneous twisting of the fiber because it dries.

If wet flax is held by one end and dried, then its free end, which is oriented towards the observer, will turn clockwise (right handed, in line with Figure 3). Under the identical conditions, hemp will turn round within the incorrect way. The direction of twisting is characteristic for both flax and hemp, whereas cotton fibers twist in numerous instructions during this test. Ramie twists as flax. [15] This process described in literature [15] was modified in line with the chances of our laboratory and is presented


Process of twist test

1)   Samples of tested fibers were put into the bottle with water at temperature. The samples   were left for ca. 5 min within the bathtub (even longer is possible).

2)   One fiber is way from the bathtub and stuck into the holder so as that the component of fiber of ca.20mm protrudes from the holder (Figure 1).(The experiment cannot be assessed with a length of projected fiber under 10 mm or above 30 mm.)

Introduction of Flax and Hemp | Difference between Flax and Hemp Fibers

Introduction of Flax and Hemp | Difference between Flax and Hemp Fibers


3) The holder with the fiber is positioned on a heated plate (Figure 2) with the temperature of ca. 80°C. (This can be a black solid ceramic or glass desk which was tempered within the drying oven at100°C for ca. 20 min.)


Introduction of Flax and Hemp | Difference between Flax and Hemp Fibers

Introduction of Flax and Hemp | Difference between Flax and Hemp Fibers


4) We perceive the spin of the fiber during drying above the heated plate. (You can wet the fibers again within the holder (by involvement into the liquor) and recurrently observed when dry on the plate.).Flax twists during drying within the right-handed direction P, hemp within the left-handed direction L.




Differentiation of flax and hemp in polarized light [9, 17]

Polarization light microscopy is additionally uses for the identification of flax and hemp fibers. Polarization light microscopy uses two polarization filters. These filters  cross-plane across each other. In Figure 4. At this point note it because the polarizing filter (45°) and so the analyzer (135°).For emphasis of interference, applying the R.I. gypsum plate within the optical system.


Determining the birefringence of fibers is prime to observation in polarized light. So, It defines Birefringence  because the difference of refractive indexing parallel direction with the direction of fiber axis n||, and in vertical direction on the fiber axis n⊥.


D= n|| – n⊥


Reflects the alignment of the fiber construction, If the orientation of structure is larger, therefore the birefringence is larger. Flax and hemp have high birefringence, which they vary only by the direction of the fibril slope see able of the fiber axis. You can see it within the figure on.

Figure4. Schema of polarization microscope


The fibers will be define as optically positive and optically negative by course of swelling or reducing of interference colours after applying the R.I. plate. The optically positive fibers (at the position of +45° on the axis of the R.I. plate) show the swelling of colours (additively), and at the position of -45° they show the reduction of colours (subtractivity). These relations are opposite within the optically negative fiber.


Figure 5.Optical birefringence. Additively and subtractivity of fibers [17]



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