Introduction of Synthetic Fiber
Introduction of Synthetic Fiber : Scientific research and technological progress have allowed the evolution of textile fibers with the introduction of artificial and synthetic ones. Let’s find out the differences. The risk of confusing the right with the wrong is always lurking, even when dealing with the topic related to natural, artificial and synthetic textile fibers. A superficiality of judgement can also lead to associate the chemical fiber with an unhealthy.If not harmful, choice for health and the environment.
It is not so. The most famous outdoor brands, which also invest in research and innovation, offer new models, new membranes and new fibers year after year – with such frenetic rhythms that it becomes difficult to stay behind – and that induce hikers to always look for technical garments more performing and eco sustainable. Sometimes the “thread” of the speech is lost between scientific terms and names dictated by fashion and marketing.
In the field of textiles it is easy to confuse the term artificial with synthetic : both refer to man-made fibers using compounds existing in nature , cellulose, proteins and synthetic chemical compounds derived from petroleum.The artificial fibers , however, are obtained from renewable raw materials and are similar to natural fibers with the only difference being treated with chemical elements – the natural elements are rendered soluble and then transformed into more or less long wires through the coagulation process and spinning – to improve its characteristics according to the specific applications for which the fibers are intended.
Viscose rayon, acetate rayon and Bamberg, used in clothing, are among the best known artificial fibers obtained from the transformation of natural raw materials of organic origin.The synthetic or technophobe fibers most used in the outdoor environment – we name the polyester, nylon, elastane, polyurethane, acrylic and polyamide fibers – are created by man through chemical reactions and can then be combined with fabrics natural to obtain those characteristics of resistance and softness that are combined with the intrinsic qualities of synthetic fibers : comfortable in contact with the skin, hypoallergenic and odorless. So synthetic fiber does not exist in nature because it is made by man through chemical processes. Synthetic fibers basically represent “the evolution of the species” because thanks to continuous scientific research they better respond to users’ needs.
The raion is obtained from the processing of wood or cotton treated with caustic soda. By combining these elements with a solution of carbon disulphide, raion is obtained, one of the least expensive artificial fibers.
Acetates are also produced from waste wood treated with acetic anhydride. The synthetic fiber obtained in this way is called cellulose diacetate or artificial silk.
The acrylic fiber par excellence is leacril which is obtained from a chemical compound called acrylonitrile, which is a monomer, which together with other molecules forms a staple-shaped polymer. It can then be spun and woven like any natural fiber.
The manufacturing process of this particular type of fiber starts from the treatment of an ester, that is to say a product made from alcohol and acid which forms long chains which are called polymers .
The carbon filaments obtained from acrylonitrile also form long chains of polymers which are called polyacrylonitrile.
Heated at high temperatures , this material allows the production of numerous thinner and easily spun carbon fibers. Carbon fiber is used for making glasses and even aircraft components.
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