Production Processes for Wool Yarns | Manufacturing Processes for Wool Based Yarns
Production Processes for Wool Yarns | Manufacturing Processes for Wool Based Yarns: Wool is that the fiber resulting from the hair of tames animals, typically sheep. Wool is classed in keeping with the source from which it’s gotten. The fleece or the wool which is collected is reserved to the various stages of producing process which starts with the preparation of the fiber. The various stage through which it’s taken depends upon whether the fiber is meant for worsted or woolen yarns. The flow chart for the manufacturing process is as follows:
Preparation of Wool
Fleeces vary from 6 to 18 pounds (3-8 kg) in weight. The most effective quality wool is gotten from the edges and shoulders and is treated jointly fleece. Similarly, the wool gotten from the top, chest, belly, and shanks is treated as a second fleece.
The wool or newly sheared fleece is named grease wool because it contains the natural oil of the sheep. When grease wool is washed, it loses from 20 to 80 percent of its original weight. The wool gotten should be carefully sorted into different grades.
Sorting and Grading:
In sorting, the wool is shifting into sections of various quality fibers, from diverse parts of the body. The most effective quality of wool or one fleece is employed for clothing; the lesser quality or second fleece is employed to create rugs. Each grade is set by type, length, fineness, elasticity, and strength. The wool is also graded consistent with the sort of Ovis aries or consistent with fineness or diameter which is otherwise called as u. s. System and British Imperial System.
The classification consistent with the U.S. System or consistent with the sort of Ovis aries from which it’s obtained is as follows:
- First quality wool is identified as fine and is corresponding tothe standard of wool that would be obtained from a full-to three-quarter-blood Ovis aries.
- Second quality is corresponding to the sort of wool that would be obtained from a sibling
- The poorest qualities are identified as common and braid; they’re coarse, have little crimp, relatively few scales and are somewhat hair like in appearance.
- The grading system on the planet market is predicated upon the British numbering system, which relates the fineness, or diameter, of the wool fiber to the sort of combed, or worsted, yarn that would be spun from 1 pound of scoured wool.
- The first in quality would be that wool which is enough for and capable of being spun into the very best wool yarn counts of 80s, 70s, and 64s (No. of 560 yards in 1 pound).
- The second quality is enough to be capable of being spun into yarn counts of 62s, 60s, and 58s.
- The poorest grade is capable of being spun into yarn counts of only 40s and 30s.
Wool taken directly from the sheep is named “raw” or “grease wool.” It contains sand, dirt, grease, and dried sweat. The load of those contaminants accounts for about 30 to 70 percent of the fleece’s total weight.
Wool scouring is that the commencement within the conversion of greasy wool into a textile product. it’s the method of washing wool in predicament and detergent to get rid of the non-wool contaminants so drying it. The scouring machine contains warm water, soap and a gentle solution of sal soda or other alkali. they’re equipped with automatic rakes, which stir the wool. Rollers between the vats squeeze out the water. If the wool isn’t sufficiently away from vegetable substance after scoring, it’s put through the carbonizing bath of dilute sulphuric acid or acid to blow the foreign matter.
Woolafter scouring shouldn’t be allowed to become absolutely dry. About, 12 to16 percent of the moisture is left within the wool which might enable handling of the fibers in further processing.
Woolies unmanageable after scouring and hence the fiber requires to be treated with various oils to stay it from becoming brittle. Oiling of the fibers also helps to lubricate it for the spinning operation.
From this stage, further processing depends on whether woollen or worsted yarns are to be produced. The most objective of carding is to disentangle and to open the scoured wool. Carding also forms an online of disentangled fibers that are formed into sliver.
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