Textile fiber Structure | Physical and molecular structure of textile fiber

Textile fiber Structure | Physical and molecular structure of textile fiber

 

In this article, garment merchandising will discuss Textile fiber Structure | Physical and molecular structure of textile fiber : This shows complex morphological systems being composed of various phases with disparities in mass, tactility, chemical composition, moreover as molecular and morphological structure. The utility of any fiber relies upon the structure of the Textile  fiber formed during formation and induced during post-formation processes. The foremost theoretical problem is that the relation between the structure and also the resultant properties. Hence, it’s important to review different structures and their importance in fiber properties and thus application. The employment of any materials like fibers and thus their development is basically dependent upon:

(a) Their mechanical properties under end use conditions
(b) Mechanical properties under processing conditions
(c) Interaction between the influence of processing variables upon structure and performance of the merchandise.

The performance of the Textile fibers thanks to loading depends upon the molecular structure and also the spacing of the molecules. The molecular structure of the Textile fiber is usually established during polymerization. Of these require an entire understanding of the fiber structure. Textile fibers structural investigations should result in the analysis of chemical structure, tactility or configuration of the polymer, chain conformation and crystallinity. Structural investigation moreover because the information available isn’t simple and simple. It’s required to analyze a large range of knowledge from several techniques. Each technique has its own science and theory. A number of this information could be circumstantial and qualitative and could be included artefacts and errors in experimental techniques and calculations.

 

Textile fiber Structure | Physical and molecular structure of textile fiber

Textile fiber Structure | Physical and molecular structure of textile fiber

 

Requirement of fiber formation or fiber forming polymer:

  • Polymer should have long & linear chain molecules.
  • Molecular chain must be parallel to each other.
  • Some measures of freedoms of molecules movement due to give required extensibility.
  • Lateral forces to hold the molecules together and gives cohesion the structure.
  • They must be chemically resistance.
  • They should have attractions.

 

Textile fiber Structure | Physical and molecular structure of textile fiber

Textile fiber Structure | Physical and molecular structure of textile fiber

 

Methods of fiber structure investigation:

  1. X-ray diffraction method.
  2. Infra-red radiation method.
  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance methods.
  4. Thermal analysis.
  5. Optical microscopic method.
  6. Electron microscopic method.
  7. The chemistry of fiber material.
  8. Density.
  9. General physical properties.

 

Properties of x-ray diffraction method:

  1. Determination of chemical groups.
  2. Determination of molecular spacing.
  3. Determination of chemical bonding.
  4. Determination of degree of crystallinity & orientation.
  5. Determination of water absorption.

Properties of Infra- red radiation absorption method:

  1. Determination of spiral turns or convolution of cotton fiber
  2. Determination of molecular spacing
  3. Determination of chemical bonding
  4. Determination of degree of crystallinity & orientation
  5. Determination of molecular packing
  6. Determination of cross-sectional shape of fiber
  7. Identifications of fiber

 

Crystallinity:

Crystallinity is the procedure of fiber molecules in the molecular chain.

 

Properties of crystallinity:

  1. More rigid.
  2. More strength.
  3. More dense.
  4. More stiff.
  5. Less water absorbent.

 

Measurement of crystallinity:

  1. Infra-red radiation absorption method
  2. Density measurement methods
  3. X-ray diffraction method

 

Orientation:

Orientation is the procedure of molecular chain of fiber.

 

Properties of Orientation:

  1. More water absorbent
  2. More rigid
  3. More stiff
  4. More dense
  5. More strength
  6. More lustrous
  7. Less elastic as less extension

 

 

Measurement of Orientation:

 

  1. Density measurement methods.
  2. X-ray diffraction method.
  3. Infra-red radiation absorption method.

 

Effects of structural factors on fiber properties:

1) Chemical bonding:

  1. Single bond-More strength, less flexibility
  2. Double bond – Less strength, more flexibility

 

2) Character of polymer chain:

  1. Single bond-More strength, less flexibility
  2. Double bond – Less strength, more flexibility

3) Molecular packing:

  1. Regular packing: More strength, less flexibility
  2. Irregular packing: Less strength, more flexibility

 

 

-CH2-CH2-HCCH3-CH2-CH2- HCCH3-CH2-CH2 –

Regular packing

 

-CH2-CH2- CH3CCH3-CH2-CH2- HCCH3-CH2-CH2 –

Irregular packing

4) Crystallinity:

High crystallinity, higher strength and less flexibility

 

5) Orientation:

 

High Orientation, higher strength and less flexibility

 

6) Nature of monomer:

  1. Same monomer (Homopolymer) :The More strength, The less flexibility
  2. Same monomer (Co-polymer) : Less strength, more flexibility

7) Internal structure of fiber polymer:

  1. For ring structure -More strength, less flexibility
  2. For normal structure -Less strength, more flexibility

 

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