Textile Fibers | Properties of Textile fibers

Textile Fibers | Properties of Textile fibers

In this article , garment merchandising will provide you the information about Textile Fibers | Properties of Textile fibers . Textile fibers | properties of textile fibers can be explained in several ways but we tried our best to bring the easiest way to mention these properties . Textile fibers are the materials at natural or synthetic  origin which incorporates a high length to width ratio and with appropriate characteristics which might be rehabilitated into yarn and fabric for apparel by interlacing or interloping; could also be natural or man-made ; the littlest element, hair like in nature, which will be separated from a material. In simple words, a slender filament or fine strand of sufficient length, pliability, fineness, flexibility and strength to be spun into yarns and woven into cloth is termed textile fiber.

Properties of Textile Fibres:

All fibers aren’t textile fiber. To become a textile fiber it must have some characteristics. One of the significant characteristic is length; to become a textile fiber it must have a minimum of 5 mm length then it’ll be spin able and it must be supple, flexible and robust enough.

Classification of Fiber Properties:

Normally textile fiber is classified in two ways :

A. Primary properties of textile fibers

B. Secondary properties of textile fibers

A. Primary properties of textile fibers:

1) length to width ratio should be high

2) Flexibility

3) Tenacity

4) Uniformity

5) Spinning quality (Cohesiveness)

6) Physical shape

7) B. Secondary properties of textile fibers:

8) Resiliency

9) Elastic recovery and elongation

10) Density

11) Flammability and other thermal reactions

12) Colour

13) Luster

14) Moisture regain

Approximately, properties of textile fibers are categorized in following way:

    1. Physical Properties of textile fibers
    2. Mechanical Properties of textile fibers
    3. Chemical Properties of textile fibers
    4. Thermal Properties of textile fibers
    5. Electrical Properties of textile fibers
    6. Biological Properties of textile fibers
    7. Optical Properties of textile fibers
    8. Structural Properties of textile fibers
    9. Radio logical Properties of textile fibers
    10. Environmental Properties of textile fibers
    11. Torsional Property of textile fibers
    12. Acoustic Properties of textile fibers 
  1. Physical Properties of Fiber:

We are  giving  the name of physical properties along  their unit. A textile fiber must have the subsequent physical properties. They’re as follow:

1) Tenacity / Specific Strength (g/den)
2) Length (cm/inch)
3) Fineness (mic-value)
4) Moisture Regain (MR %) and Moisture Content (MC %)
5) Specific Gravity (g/cc)
6) Elongation (cum/inch)
7) Elastic Recovery (%)
8) Initial Young Modulus (g/den)
9) Breaking Length (km)
10) Extension (%)
11) Maturity
12) Swelling R Water relation
13) Static Electrification
14) Glass-Transmission Temperature (T9)
15) Crystalline temperature (Tm)
16) Discoloration
17) Specific Heat
18) Burning Behavior
19) Thermal Conductivity
20) Pilling Behavior
21) Limited Oxygen Demand (LOI %)
22) Degradation

  1. Mechanical Properties of Fiber:

The properties that define a material’s capability to stretch ,compress, scratch, bend, dent, or break

1) Young’s modulus / Stiffness
2) Tenacity
3) Specific modulus
4) Tensile strength
5) Compressive strength
6) Shear strength
7) Yield strength
8) Elasticity, etc.

  1. Chemical Properties of Textile Fiber:

To classify a textile fiber, following properties plays a very important role. Chemical properties are-

1) Chemical Composition
2) Effects of Acids
3) Effects of Alkalis
4) Effects of Organic Solvents
5) Effects of Insects
6) Effect of micro-Organism

  1. Thermal Properties of Textile Fibers are:

1) Thermal conductivity
2) Flammability
3) Glass transition temperature
4) Melting point
5) Coefficient of linear thermal expansion
6) Specific heat capacity

  1. Electrical Properties of Fiber:

Electrical conductivity or specific conductance could be a measure of a material’s capacity to conduct an electrical current . Conductivity is that the reciprocal (inverse) of electrical resistivity, ρ (Greek: rho), and has the SI units of siemens per metre (S•m-1) . Resistance –Ohms (e.g. Resistance of Dyneema is > 1014 Ohm)

  1. Biological Properties of Textile Fibers are:

1) Toxicity
2) Ability to shield from biological weapons
3) Bio- compatibity
4) Anti-microbial properties
5) fungal resistance

  1. Optical Properties of textile Fibers are:

1) Absorbance
2) Reflectivity
3) Refractive index
4) Optical density
5) Transmittance
6) Colour
7) Photosensitivity
8) UV visibility
9) IR & NIR visibility
10) Radar visibility

  1. Structural Properties of Textile Fibers are:

All of textile fibers have their own structure by which they are identify.

1) Fine Structure and Appearance
2) Micro Structure
3) X-Sectional View
4) Longitudinal View

  1. Radiological Properties of textile Fibers:

Capability to shield from atomic/nuclear radiations

  1. Environmental Properties of textile Fibers are:

1) Photo-stability
2) UV stability
3) Weathering
4) Oxidation

  1. Torsional Property of textile Fibers are:

It is the possession of any fiber or material when a torsional force is applied thereon. Here Torsional force could be a twisting force that’s applied on the 2 ends of the fabric in two other ways. The behaviors which are shown by a textile material when it’s exposed to a torsional force is termed torsional property.

1) Torsional rigidity
2) Breaking twist
3) Shear modulus

  1. Acoustic Properties of textile Fibers are:

1) Sonic velocity
2) Sound absorption

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