Thermal Properties of Textile Fibers
In this article, garment merchandising will make you understand about Thermal Properties of Textile Fibers.
The property which is revealed by a textile fiber whenever it is exposed to heat is named as thermal property.
Thermal properties are including:
- Heat of wetting or heat of absorption.
- Glass transition temperature.
- Thermal conductivity.
- Melting temperature.
- Thermal expansion.
- Heat setting.
1. Heat of wetting:
When a textile fiber absorbs moisture or water it gives of some amount of warmth which is termed heat of wetting or heat of absorption. Heat of absorption resulting from changes in moisture regain instead of the thermal conductivity. If 1gm of dried textile fiber is totally wetted then heat in calory/gm is involved which is understood as heat of wetting for that fiber.
2. Glass transition temperature(Tg):
The temperature up to which a fiber behaves hard as like glass and after which it behaves soft as like rubber is called Glass transition temperature and it is denoted by Tg. The range of Tg is lies between -100˚C to 300˚C
3. Thermal conductivity:
The rate of heat transfer in degree along the body of a textile fiber by conduction is named as thermal conductivity of fibers. Higher thermal conductivity specifies the fiber is more conductive. Thermal conductivity is measure by co-efficient of thermal conductivity.
4. Melting temperature:
Melting temperature is the temperature at which fiber melts entirely so, this temperature is named as melting temperature of the fiber. At melting temperature fiber loses its identity and converts into a viscous liquid. The fibers also loses its strength and some molecular weight when the temperature approaches to its melting point
5. Thermal expansion:
Thermal expansion can be measured by co-efficient of thermal expansion and which can define as the fractional increase in length of a specimen to rise in temperature by 1˚C.
Co-efficient of thermal expansion ═ Length increased / initial length of specimen ═ ∆L / L ═ L2-L1 / L1
6. Heat setting:
Heat setting is the process of stabilizing the form of fibers, yarns, fabric or garment by means of successive heating or cooling in dry and wet condition.
If two exteriors come in close contact with each other, then charge is produced because of friction among them. The created or produced charge remains enclosed and static in those surfaced. They cannot move from one place to another place. Here the two surfaces replace charges between each other. . This kind of electricity is called static electricity.
Problem caused by static electricity in textile:
Similar charge repels each other:
- The filament in a charged warp will blow out away from one another.
- That causes difficulties in handling materials.
- There would be ballooning of a bundle of sliver.
- Cloth will not fold down neatly upon itself when it comes off a finishing machine.
Different charge attracts each other:
- Problems in the opening of the parachute.
- Dissimilar parts of garments may be stick together.
Attraction between charged particles & charged textile materials:
- The Roller lapping can occur.
- Dust, Dirt’s etc. may be attracted by the textile material as a result materials become dirt.
- The effect of Soiling of cloth might occur.
- Fibers may stick to the earthed parts of the machine.
Methods of minimizing static electricity:
- The use of conducting liquids like emulsion, oil, friction between the materials ca be reduced as a result, static electricity will be minimize.
- Due to increasing relative humidity of the atmosphere, static electricity can be minimized.
- The use of anti-static agent on the materials static problem may reduce.
- By ear thing the metallic part of the machinery static electricity can be minimized. By blending conductive materials with nonconductive materials, static electricity can be minimized.
The spinning of staple and filament yarns always causes fiber migration during this spinning. The effect of migration is more noticeable in staple yarn than in filament yarn. This migration of fibers causes much effect on various properties of fiber as like elongation and strength. In step with the textile institute “The change within the distance of a fiber or filament form the axis of a yarn during production is name as fiber migration.
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